1898 to 1956 AD

Anglo-Egyptian rule

After the suppression of the Mahdiya, the British Empire and Egypt formally shared the governance of Sudan. On the ground, Sudan was a British colony. Horatio Herbert Kitchener became governor general of Sudan in 1898. Reginald Wingate succeeded him only a year later.

The development of Sudan proceeded unevenly under colonial rule. North and south were administered as separate provinces of the condominium. Investment focussed on the north, developing infrastructure and economy. Telegraph and railway lines were extended to link key points, but services did not reach more remote areas. Port Sudan opened in 1906, replacing Suakin as the country's principal port on the Red Sea. In 1911, the British administration and the private Sudan Plantations Syndicate launched the Gezira Scheme, a large-scale irrigation project which was to bring large tracts of land between the Blue and the White Niles south of Khartoum under cultivation. It made cotton – then destined for Britain's textile industry – the mainstay of the Sudanese economy, and turned the region into Sudan's most densely populated area.

In 1943, the British began preparing the north for self-government. In 1946, they reversed this policy, deciding to integrate north and south Sudan under one government.

300,000 to 5000 BC

Old and Middle Stone Age

5000 to 2500 BC

New Stone Age

2500 to 1500 BC

Kerma period

1500 to 1070 BC

Pharaonic period

900 to 300 BC

Napatan period

300 BC to 350 AD

Meroitic period

350 to 600 AD

Post-Meroitic period

600 to 1500 AD

Medieval period

1500 to 1880 AD

Islamic period

1881 to 1898 AD


1898 to 1956 AD

Anglo-Egyptian rule

Locations of interest:


Erkowit is a kind of Sudanese Davos. It is situated 40 kilometres from the shores of the Red Sea in the Red Sea Mountains at a breath-taking altitude of 1100 metres. Due to this location, it boasts a unique flora and fauna. Read more ...


Strategically located at the confluence of the Blue and the White Nile, Khartoum was founded as an Egyptian military outpost in 1821. It became the capital of Turkish-Egyptian Sudan in 1834. Read more ...

Port Sudan

Port Sudan is Sudan's major port on the Red Sea. Its development started in the early 20th century under British rule. The town is still characterised by its colonial beginnings, with many old buildings being preserved. Read more ...