since 1956

Republic of the Sudan

On 1 January 1956, Sudan became an independent state, with Ismail al-Azhari being its first Prime Minister.

Since 1989, Omar Hassan Ahmed al-Bashir has been President.

In 2011, the Republic of the Sudan and the Republic of South Sudan became two separate states.

300,000 to 5000 BC

Old and Middle Stone Age

5000 to 2500 BC

New Stone Age

2500 to 1500 BC

Kerma period

1500 to 1070 BC

Pharaonic period

900 to 300 BC

Napatan period

300 BC to 350 AD

Meroitic period

350 to 600 AD

Post-Meroitic period

600 to 1500 AD

Medieval period

1500 to 1880 AD

Islamic period

1881 to 1898 AD


1898 to 1956 AD

Anglo-Egyptian rule

Locations of interest:


Strategically located at the confluence of the Blue and the White Nile, Khartoum was founded as an Egyptian military outpost in 1821. It became the capital of Turkish-Egyptian Sudan in 1834. Read more ...

Port Sudan

Port Sudan is Sudan's major port on the Red Sea. Its development started in the early 20th century under British rule. The town is still characterised by its colonial beginnings, with many old buildings being preserved. Read more ...